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7 Facts About Taiwan’s ‘Mother of Libraries’

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Wang Chiu-hwa (b. 1925) is one of Taiwan’s most prominent female architects. She has earned the unofficial title of ‘Taiwan’s mother of libraries’ not only for the many libraries she has designed, but also for pioneering the earliest modern university library in Taiwan. Her work as a Chinese female architect practising in the United States and Taiwan has been underrepresented both regionally and globally.

The M+ curatorial team met Wang in 2015 and learned about her archive, of which she generously donated a large part to the M+ Collection Archives. Acquiring this archive was the beginning of M+’s efforts to uncover the histories of women architects, whose work often lacks documentation and research. Topics related to the visibility, fluidity, and multiplicity in the practice of women architects—including that of Wang Chiu-hwa—will be further explored at the event M+ Matters: Conversations on Women, Architecture and the City on 23 November 2019.

Below are seven facts about Wang Chiu-hwa, told through images of her work represented in the M+ Collection Archives and her personal photos.

1. Wang Chiu-hwa is one of the few women to have been trained in China’s first architecture school.

Sepia-toned photograph of a smiling woman in a classroom with papers laid out on the tables in front of her. She is surrounded by a group of men in white dress shirts and ties and appears to be chatting with them.

Wang Chiu-hwa surrounded by her classmates in 1948 during her architectural studies at the Columbia University School of Architecture. Photo courtesy Wang Chiu-hwa

She received her Bachelor of Science in Architecture from China’s first university programme for architecture at the National Central University in Chongqing. After that, she briefly studied at the University of Washington in Seattle before heading to Columbia University School of Architecture where she earned her Master of Science in Architecture in 1949. Wang was one of the few women in these programmes, as shown in the above photograph of her surrounded by her fellow students at Columbia University.

Despite her status as a pioneering woman architect, Wang does not believe in being defined by her identity as a woman, but rather for pursuing her passion and talents without being bound by gender (or ethnic) labels. When asked three years ago if being a Chinese female architect in 1950s–1970s New York had ever posed a challenge for her, she said ‘Not really, but it helped to be humble and good at what you do.’

2. Wang lived and worked in the United States for more than thirty years.

Photograph of a man and a woman standing in front of a building surrounded by a hedge on a sunny day. Both smile gently at the camera.

Wang Chiu-hwa with Percival Goodman visiting Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan in 1988. Photo courtesy Wang Chiu-hwa

After graduating from Columbia University in 1949, in 1950 Wang joined the office of Percival Goodman, Professor of Design at Columbia, with whom she had interned as a student.

The first project she designed (while in a sanatorium recovering from tuberculosis) was a synagogue, Fairmount Temple in Beachwood Village, Ohio (1953). It was one of the many synagogues Wang designed in collaboration with Goodman, a leading theorist in synagogue design who has designed more than fifty modern synagogues across the United States. Goodman not only believed in the synagogue’s fundamental function as a place of worship, but also saw it as fulfilling the diverse educational and social needs of newly settled suburban congregations. This resulted in inventive features like the ‘flex sanctuary’—a system of movable folding partitions that allowed the main sanctuary to expand into adjoining social halls or classrooms.

Sepia-toned photograph of a brick building in which a brick wall surrounds a building with a roof with three visible sharp points in an almost star-like shape.
Floor plan of a synagogue labeled ‘Main Floor Plan’. Different rooms are laid out with labels such as ‘Sanctuary’, ‘Auditorium’, ‘Offices’, and ‘School’.

Architects: Wang Chiu-hwa, Percival Goodman, Project file, Fairmount Temple (Anshe Chesed Congregation) (1950–1957), Beachwood Village, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, [1950]–1958, gelatin silver print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

After getting her architectural license in 1960, Wang became an associate at Goodman’s office, and a partner in the late 1970s. With Goodman, she designed numerous synagogues, schools, and residences in the United States, as well as The Center for American Studies (1972) at the Academia Sinica campus in Taipei. However, much of her work in the United States has not been well documented, partly because Goodman was recognised as lead designer of the projects. Most of Wang’s projects in the United States are represented in the M+ Collection Archives.

Monochrome photograph of a woman sitting at a desk in an office next to a large potted plant. She is writing something on a piece of paper and appears absorbed in her work.

Wang Chiu-hwa at work in the office of Percival Goodman, New York, 1976. Photo courtesy Wang Chiu-hwa

In the United States, Wang was often called the ‘architect in a qipao’: ‘I wore qipao most of the time when I was in the United States. So (sometimes) when I paid a visit to a construction site, people would say, “Oh, here comes the architect in a qipao.”’

Photograph of a woman in a white qipao with black dots who is leaning on a stairwell and smiling at the camera.

Wang Chiu-hwa in a qipao on the entrance of Centre for American Studies, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, in circa 1972 during its construction. Photo courtesy Wang Chiu-hwa

3. Wang considers architecture a form of social art.

Sepia-toned photograph of numerous young children standing in front of the entrance of a brick building. Letters above the entrance spell out ‘Public School 345’.

A public school designed by Wang and Goodman in New York. Architects: Wang Chiu-hwa, Percival Goodman, Project file, Public School 345 (1966–1967), Brooklyn, New York, USA, [1966–1967], mimeograph copy on paper; ink on paper, typewriter ink on paper; printout on paper; gelatin silver print, chromogenic colour print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

Wang once said that architecture is ‘an integral part of the complex built environment, charged with human emotions and social meaning—beyond form and function, beauty and utility.’ According to her, ‘When you are a designer, you have to first take into account the interests of the majority of people, instead of just the few who are rich.’ She has consistently designed with a people-first approach, believing that architecture should be a force of social good. This had led to her commitment to nurturing communities and public life in her design of synagogues, schools, and proposals for community planning.

Monochrome photograph of groups of people sitting and chatting on steps leading up to a campus building. The steps are interspersed with flat plazas.

Students hanging out at the stepped-plaza designed by Wang Chiu-hwa for Queensborough Community College, circa 1975. Architects: Wang Chiu-hwa, Percival Goodman, Queensborough Community College, Bayside (1969–1977), New York, USA, [1969–1977], black-and-white slide. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

This is evident in how Wang commissioned art for the public primary schools she designed while at Goodman’s office. She included the students’ own creations to increase their sense of ownership of the space, reducing cases of vandalism. When planning Queensborough Community College, she noticed an eight-metre difference in height between the top and bottom of the campus site. Wang designed a gently sloped, stepped street interspersed with occasional plazas and lined with planters, to make the various buildings on site accessible to students, who could also sit in the plazas. This became such a popular space that it was a de-facto outdoor student activity centre even before the Student Centre was built.

These values reflect those of Percival Goodman. Goodman and his brother Paul Goodman wrote the influential book Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life in 1947. The book explores principles and values behind design and planning that were utopian in their ideals and pragmatic in their means, with a concern for social justice.

Monochrome photograph of an architectural model of an urban area next to a body of water. A large empty space lined by trees with connecting pathways on the water sits next to a highway, behind which are larger buildings.

Architects: Wang Chiu-Hwa, Percival Goodman, Project file, Urban Design Proposal (Manhattanville-on-Hudson Proposal), Manhattan, New York, USA, [circa 1964–circa 1965], gelatin silver print, M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

Wang also spoke out against the practice of prioritising private cars over public transport, citing Robert Moses’ focus on building highways in mid-twentieth century New York: ‘Robert Moses particularly liked to build highways. He made contact with gas companies. We opposed [his proposals] to a great extent. Why do you have to build that many roads for private cars?’. Her and Goodman’s dissent was manifested in an unsolicited proposal for Manhattanville-on-Hudson, designed in collaboration with their students at Columbia University. Instead of completely razing existing housing and industrial warehouses to build highways, they proposed a ten-block urban rehabilitation project in Harlem, preserving selected structures while demolishing others to provide space for housing, educational facilities, industrial spaces for developing high-level technologies, and a public park on a site with only pedestrian and local service traffic.

4. Wang is best known for her libraries in Taiwan.

Photograph of a building framed by a dark archway. The building is horizontally aligned and has a flat roof. A vertical section of the building slices through the flat roof and the rest of the building on the left. The building sits on top of a podium with a staircase leading up to it.

Architect: Wang Chiu-Hwa; Architectural Firm: J. J. Pan and Partners, Photograph, exterior elevation, University Library (1983–1985), Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan, circa 1985, chromogenic colour print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

When she returned to Taiwan, Wang began designing Taiwan’s major libraries, which earned her the title of ‘Taiwan’s mother of libraries.’ This began with her involvement in designing the furniture and interiors of the National Central Library, and then the first modern library concept (open-stack libraries did not exist in Taiwan before the 1980s) in Chung Yuan Christian University.

Photograph of the interior of a library with two open levels linked by staircases. People sit and study at desks that are laid out in connected sets of four, with each desk having its own wall that surrounds the reader.

Architect: Wang Chiu-Hwa, Chang Ching Yu Memorial Library (1983–1985), Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-li (Zhongli), Taiwan, [circa 1983–circa 1985], chromogenic colour print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

Every aspect of Wang’s library designs takes into account how people will use them. Her library plans reveal her mastery in planning for diverse programming (study halls, auditoriums, gardens, open stacks, offices, etc) in a limited area, yet adaptable to multiple uses. In the context of Taiwan's poorly resourced universities and ambition to revamp facilities in the early 1980s, it was essential to meet the building’s various needs. She even designed her own library furniture.

For Chung Yuan University library, in response to the building's air-conditioning being limited to only offices and classrooms, Wang devised a mechanism and roof shaft for forced natural ventilation—the first of its kind in Taiwan—to cool the main stacks.

Ink print of an architectural drawing showcasing a three-dimensional cross-section of a library with four levels linked by staircases.

Architects: Wang Chiu-hwa, J. J. Pan and Partners, Axonometric drawing, Main Library, National Changhua University of Education (1986–1989), Chang-hua (Changhua), Taiwan, [circa 1986–circa 1989], blackline print and marker ink on transparent paper. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

Wang also believes in making institutional buildings that can function as multi-purpose centres characterised by sociability. This is reflected in the multi-level entrances of her libraries with stepped piazzas and sunken gardens, the study spaces organised to visually connect across floors, dramatic stairwells inside, and green spaces outside. This approach is particularly evident in how the open-stack reading rooms are designed to surround a courtyard garden in the library of National Changhua Normal University, and how the landscaped terraces on each floor are connected by stairs.

5. Her work with libraries stemmed from her love of learning and education.

Monochrome photograph of a woman and a child reading together on a sofa inside a library.

Architects: Wang Chiu-hwa, Percival Goodman, Photograph, interior of library, Center for American Studies (Institute of European and American Studies) (1969–1972), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, [1972], gelatin silver print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

Wang has spoken about her lifelong interest in libraries: ‘When I was in junior secondary school, there was a library there. The librarian recognised me because I was the only person who was there every day. I would go there after class, stand by the bookcases and read for I don’t know how long.’ When she returned to Taiwan after her time in the United States, the construction of the National Central Library was just about to start. The Director General learned about her interest in libraries and invited her to take up the role of library consultant.

Photograph of a red brick building with grey tiled roofs stands under a blue sky next to a small grassy area.

Architects: Wang Chiu-hwa, Percival Goodman, Photograph, exterior of Center for American Studies (Institute of European and American Studies) (1969–1972), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, [1978], chromogenic colour print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa

This love of libraries came from growing up in an environment of learning and education. Her father, Wang Shih-chieh, was the first Minister of Education (1933-38) in Republican China. He was also the head of the Academia Sinica from 1962 to 1970, the national academy of the Republic of China, located in Taiwan. He had the idea to establish a Center for American Studies in the Academia Sinica, which Wang Chiu-hwa designed in 1972. This influential building in Taiwan is known for its red-brick walls and grey-tile roofs, meant to harmonise with neighbouring traditional buildings but constructed in a modern Brutalist style. This project was the first of many learning and research facilities Wang was to design in Taiwan, particularly in collaboration with architect Joshua Pan (who was also a student of Percival Goodman) and his firm J.J. Pan and Partners, Architects and Planners, from the 1980s up to the early 2000s.

6. She designed her own apartment tower.

Two images side by side. The image on the left shows an apartment tower covered in white tiles. The image on the right shows the interior of an apartment, with two brown leather sofas, a large framed painting in blue and white, and a large potted tree.

The exterior and interior of Wang Chiu-hwa’s home. Left: Architect: Wang Chiu-Hwa, Xue Residence, Taipei, Taiwan (1983-84), [circa 1983–circa 1985], chromogenic colour print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Wang Chiu-hwa, 2017. © Wang Chiu-hwa. Right: The interior of Wang Chiu-hwa’s home. Image: M+, Hong Kong.

After her father passed away, Wang designed her first high-rise in the form of an eight-storey apartment building, the Xue Residence, on the same plot where her family house once stood. She and her mother lived on the top floor with a rooftop terrace, while the rest of the apartment units were home to other family members.

She again put a lot of thought into the ventilation system. She placed a specially designed fan on the apartment’s top floor, so that when the louvres are opened, she can turn on the fan to cool the entire house.

A mobile of a stylised flying wooden figure hangs in front of a blue wall with framed paintings on it.

One of Wang Chiu-hwa’s collectables displayed in her home; a wooden mobile from Bali. Image: M+, Hong Kong.

Within her home, Wang displays multiple collectables from around the world that are meaningful to her. She shaped the home, but the home also reflects her.

7. Wang has many talents outside of her design practice.

Monochrome photograph of a woman in a qipao playing the flute.

Wang Chiu-hwa in 1966 playing the flute. Photo courtesy Wang Chiu-hwa

Wang has a penchant for literature and linguistics, including being well-versed in English and French, which led her to work with translation and literature. For example, Wang translated Percival Goodman’s book Illustrated Guide to Utopia—An Architect’s Travel Diary into Chinese and Taiwanese architect Wang Dahong’s novel Phantasmagoria from English and French into Chinese. For many years, she also ran a film club in her living room. She plays the flute and piano, and is an avid tennis player who attends the US Open almost every year.

Photograph of a group of nine people sit in a group on a tennis court, smiling at the camera. They hold old fashioned wooden tennis rackets.

Wang Chiu-hwa on the bottom left playing tennis with her friends circa 1946-1947 at the University of Washington. Photo courtesy Wang Chiu-hwa

Wang Chiu-hwa will be one of the speakers at M+ Matters: Conversations on Women, Architecture and the City on 23 November.

Video at the top of post: M+ video interview with Wang Chiu-hwa, conducted by Shirley Surya (Curator, Design and Architecture, M+) with support from William Seung (Curatorial Assistant, Design and Architecture, M+), filmed by Evan Cheng in 2017. Video transcript located here.

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